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ESD Program Management

A Realistic Approach to Continuous Measurable Improvement i…
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Titel: ESD Program Management
Autor/en: G. Theodore Dangelmayer

ISBN: 0412097818
EAN: 9780412097812
A Realistic Approach to Continuous Measurable Improvement in Static Control.
Auflage 1990.
Sprache: Englisch.
Springer US

30. November 1990 - gebunden - 356 Seiten

In today's electronics business, managing an ESD progranris an integral part of a complete quality program. In fact, any electronics firm without an active ESD program puts itself and its customers at risk. This book illustrates one good example of the detail and dedication to quality that AT&T expects within its own operations and from its suppliers. Writing of the book began at a time when Ted Dangelmayer was burdened with many demands. These demands were from AT&T's own operations, internal suppliers, external suppliers, customers and others looking for a better understanding of the phenomenon of ESD, its impact and, most of all, ways to control and manage it. In a way, this book is a response to these demands by making available a reader friendly document that distills the hard-won experiences of Ted and AT&T. The information and methods in this book have been gained at no small cost and produce results that far exceed eXRenses. There is, however, a caveat: Success will not be obtained unless there is real management commitment. This means management must allocate the necessary resources and provide active support to ensure that training, auditing, reporting, tracking and an aggressive corrective action program all take place successfully. Ted is an internationally recognized authority, and you will benefit greatly by listening to his advice and following his recommendations.
1 Twelve Critical Factors in ESD Program Management.- The Twelve Critical Factors.- Factor One - An Effective Implementation Plan.- Factor Two - Management Commitment.- Factor Three - A Full-Time Coordinator.- Factor Four - An Active Committee.- Factor Five - Realistic Requirements.- Factor Six - Training for Measurable Goals.- Factor Seven - Auditing Using Scientific Measures.- Factor Eight - ESD Test Facilities.- Factor Nine - A Communication Program.- Factor Ten - Systemic Planning.- Factor Eleven - Human Factors Engineering.- Factor Twelve - Continuous Improvement.- Points To Remember.- 2 Implementing an ESD Control Program: The Basic Steps.- The Basic Steps.- Step
1: Study and Understand the Technology of ESD Control.- Step
2: Gather Scientific Evidence of the Economic Value of ESD Control.- Step
3: Establish an Active ESD Committee.- Step
4: Develop a General Implementation Plan.- Step
5: Write or Adopt a Set of Realistic Handling Requirements.- Step
6: Prepare a Detailed Statement of Policy Including Individual Responsibilities.- Step
7: Prepare a Presentation for Management.- Step
8: Establish a Top Management Commitment.- Step
9: Develop the Details of ESD Program Management.- Step
10: Present the Program to Middle and Lower Management.- Step
11: Begin Implementation of the Control Facilities.- Step
12: Begin Training of the Entire Work Force, Including Management.- Step
13: Begin Using Facilities Immediately After Training.- Step
14: Begin Formal Auditing of All Manufacturing Departments.- Step
15: Report Auditing Results, Graphically and With Regularity, to All Levels of Management.- Step
16: Continuously Improve the Process.- Points To Remember.- 3 Fundamentals of Electrostatics.- Basic Elements.- Electric Charges.- Electric Field.- Electrostatic Potential.- Capacitance.- Charge Generation.- ESD Failure Models.- Charge Removal.- Charge Dissipation and Protective Materials.- Points To Remember.- 4 An Economic Analysis.- Case Study 1: Resistor Failure Due to Automation in Production.- Experiment 1.- Experiment 2.- Case Study 2: Bipolar Discrete Device Failure.- Experimental Evidence.- Case Study 3: Device and PWB Assembly Failures.- Experiment 1.- Experiment 2.- PWB Assembly Shop - Failure Analysis.- Manufacturing Evidence.- HIC Shop Manufacturing Data.- PWB Assembly Shop Manufacturing Data.- Case Study 4: Latent Failure Due to Prior ESD Damage.- Experimental Evidence.- Case Study 5: Ultrasensitive Devices.- Device Testing.- PWB Assembly.- Conclusion.- Points To Remember.- 5 Designed-In Protection and Product Testing.- Device Protection.- Protection at the PWB Assembly Level.- System Level Protection.- Device Testing.- PWB Assembly Testing.- System Level Testing.- ESD Design-Dealing with the Trends.- Points To Remember.- 6 ESD Test Facilities.- Field Audit Kit.- General Laboratory.- Analytical/FMA Laboratory.- Instrument Descriptions.- Instrument #1: Charge Plate Monitor (CPM).- Instrument #2: Electrostatic Field Meter.- Instrument #3: Residual Voltmeter (RVM).- Instrument #4: Surface Resistivity Meter (SRM).- Instrument #5: Resistance to Ground (RTG) Meter.- Instrument #6: Combination SRM/RTG Meter.- Instrument #7: Static Decay Time Tester With a Controlled Humidity Chamber.- Instrument #8: Megger Meter (High Resistance Ohmmeter) with NFPA Probes.- Instrument #9: Charge Analyzer (Faraday Cup).- Instrument #10: Personnel Voltage Tester (PVT).- Instrument #11: Air Ionizers.- Instrument #12: ESD Simulators.- Points To Remember.- 7 Realistic Requirements.- Sensitivity Classification.- Control Techniques.- Three Basic Rules for ESD Control.- Definitions.- Static-Safe.- Static Conductors and Nonconductors.- Surface Resistivity.- Conductive Materials.- Antistatic Property.- Static-Dissipative Materials.- Static-Generating Materials.- ESD-Insensitive Devices.- Minimum Requirements.- ESD Awareness Training.- ESD Training Program.- Auditing Compliance to ESD Procedures.- Checks and Maintenance.- Personnel Certification.- Facility Certification.- ESD Acceptance Criteria for Equipment Associated with Manufacturing, Handling, and Testing.- Personnel Grounding.- Wrist Straps.- Footwear.- Heelstraps/Toestraps.- Bootstraps.- Conductive Boots.- Conductive Shoes.- Conductive and Dissipative Floor Mats.- Stationary Work Positions (Benches, Test Sets, Etc.).- Mobile Work Positions (Packing, Mass Soldering, Etc.).- Transporting Products.- Carts.- Static-Safe Packaging.- Static-Safe Bags, Shipping Tubes, and Tote Boxes.- Dissipative Table Mats.- Dissipative Tabletops.- Dissipative Floors/Floor Finishes.- Conductive Edge Connector Shunts.- Extraordinary Measures.- Other Controls.- Factory Standards.- Points To Remember.- 8 Implementing an Auditing Program.- Why Auditing Puts the Coordinator in Charge.- What Must Be Audited.- Process Checkers.- How to Obtain Meaningful Data.- A Full-Time Inspector.- Auditing Reports Supersede Yield and FMA Data.- The Auditing Inspector: Qualifications and Duties.- Qualifications.- Duties.- The Inspector's Guide and Checklist.- ESD Data Base Management Software.- Summary.- Points To Remember.- 9 Using Auditing Results To Manage The ESD Program.- Trend and Pareto Analysis Charts.- When and How to Report the Results.- Preliminary Auditing Reports.- Final Auditing Reports.- Staff Summary Reports.- View-Graph Presentations.- Engineering Analysis.- Case Study 1: Four Years Of Continual Improvement.- Case Study 2: Solving a Wrist Strap Problem.- Case Study 3: Solving a Bench Top Problem.- Illustrations on the Use of Graphics.- Illustration 1: Departmental Comparisons.- Illustration 2: A One-Page Summary of Two Years Results.- Illustration 3: Rewarding Success With a Zero Deviations Award.- Illustration 4: Auditing Subcontractors or Suppliers.- Summary.- Points To Remember.- 10 Purchasing Guidelines: Finding the Hidden Costs and Problems.- Purchasing Principles.- Vendor Partnership Agreements.- Quality Oriented.- Credible.- Dependable.- Responsive to Your Needs/Receptive to Change.- Cost Competitive.- Equipment Selection Guidelines.- Standards.- Quality, Reliability, and Cost.- Testing Compatibility.- Suitability for Intended Application.- Human Compatibility and Training Implications.- Wrist Straps.- Heelstraps.- Shoes.- Floor Mats.- Workbenches.- Work Surface Mats.- Conductive Floor Finishes.- Bench and Room Ionizers.- Packaging and Handling Materials.- Points To Remember.- 11 Training for Measurable Goals.- One: Setting Measurable Goals.- Study The Three Principles of The Psychology of Training and Learning.- Derive Measurable Goals Based on the ESD Handbook.- Use Auditing Reports and Personal Observations to Uncover Training Problems.- Use Engineering Solutions to Provide Permanent Solutions to Training Problems.- Two: Planning Classes and Recommended Courses.- Find Resources to Train Everybody.- Determine Class Size-Mass Training Versus Small Group Training.- Ask Questions and Move About.- Demonstrate the Nature of Electrostatics and the Effect of ESD on Devices.- Basic Equipment.- Basic Demonstrations.- Videos.- Recommended Courses.- Conclusion.- Points To Remember.- 12 Packaging Considerations.- Antistatic Materials.- Material Characterization.- Static Dissipative Materials.- Material Characterization.- Conductive Materials.- Material Characterization.- Capacitive Coupling and Air Gaps.- Integrated Circuit Shipping Tubes.- Tote Boxes.- Bubble Packs Versus Bags.- Fighting ESD Failure Scenarios.- Points To Remember.- 13 Automation.- The Nature Of Automation-Caused ESD Damage: Different, Serious, and Difficult.- One: Prevention Considerations and Techniques.- Qualification Criteria and Test Equipment.- Qualification Procedures.- Two: Automation Case Studies.- Conclusion.- Points To Remember.- 14 Payback and Benefits.- Implementation Cost Control.- Quality Improvements.- Reliability Improvements.- Intangible Benefits.- Points To Remember.-
Appendix 1 AT&T ESD Policy.-
Appendix 2 Industry, Military, and AT&T Standards Used to Evaluate ESD Control Materials, Equipment, and Devices.-
Appendix 3 How to Test the Integrity of the Ground Connection on a Work Surface.- References.
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