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Woman's Life in Colonial Days

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Titel: Woman's Life in Colonial Days
Autor/en: Carl Holliday

EAN: 9780486142166
Format:  EPUB
Sprache: Englisch.
Familiy Sharing: Nein
Guilford Publications

3. Dezember 2012 - epub eBook - 352 Seiten

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What was life like for women in the American colonies? Did colonial women lead the sober, cheerless lives of hardship often portrayed by later generations? Professor Holliday's classic study, drawn from a wide range of sources, suggests otherwise. Dispelling images of the lives of colonial woman as endless gloom and suffering, accompanied by fear of pleasure, and repression of normal emotions, Holliday shows that colonial women knew love and passion, felt longing and aspiration, used the heart and the brain, and often led rich, fulfilling lives.
Studying letters, diaries, and contemporary accounts, Holliday finds that the women of the New England and Southern colonies often were well educated, politically astute, charming hostesses under the most adverse circumstances, and capable of managing their husbands' business when necessary. Life as a colonial woman was difficult, however, in the best of circumstances, and this fascinating glimpse of the day-to-day lives and activities of colonial women reveals the hardships they endured, regardless of social station. The rigors of childbirth, the death of children, the ravages of war, accidents, and disease, and the sheer physical strain of colonial life weighed upon all women.
Although their lives often were harsh, and always were filled with hard work, colonial women sustained a variety of interests common to many modern women: domestic skills, religion, education, marriage, children, personal adornment, and social life. These topics and many more are thoroughly examined in this charmingly, thoughtfully written and well-documented account that pays tribute to the courage, faith, and endurance of American women in colonial days.
CHAPTER I
COLONIAL WOMAN AND RELIGION
I. The Spirit of Woman
The Suffering of Women
The Era of Adventure
Privation and Death in the First Colonial Days
"Descriptions by Prince, Bradford, Johnson, etc."
Early Concord
II. Woman and Her Religion
Its Unyielding Quality
Its Repressive Effect on Woman
Wigglesworth's Day of Doom
What It Taught Woman
Necessity of Early Baptism
Edwards' Eternity of Hell Torment
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
Effect on Womanhood
Personal Devils
Dangers of Earthly Love
God's Sudden Punishments
III. Inherited Nervousness
Fears in Childhood
Theological Precocity
IV. Woman's Day of Rest
Sabbath Rules and Customs
A Typical Sabbath
V. Religion and Women's Foibles
Religious Regulations
Effect on Dress
Women's Singing in Church
Southern Opinion of Northern Severity
Effect of Feminine Repression
VI. Women's Comfort in Religion
An Intolerant Era
Religious Gatherings for Women
Formal Meetings with Mrs. Hutchinson
Causes of Complaint
Meetings of Quaker Women
VII. Female Rebellion
The Antiomians
Activities of Anne Hutchinson
Her Doctrines
Her Banishment
Emotional Starvation
Dread of Heresy
Anne Hutchinson's Death
VIII. Woman and Witchcraft
Universal Belief in Witchcraft
Signs of Witchcraft
Causes of the Belief
Lack of Recreation
Origin of Witchcraft Mania
Echoes from the Trials
Waning of the Mania
IX. Religion Outside of New England
First Church in Virginia
Southern Strictness
Woman's Religious Testimony
Religious Sanity
The Dutch Church
General Conclusions
CHAPTER II
COLONIAL WOMAN AND EDUCATION
I. Feminine Ignorance
Reasons
The Evidence in Court Records
Dame's Schools
School Curriculum
Training in Home Duties
II. Woman's Education in the South
Jefferson's Advice
Private Tutors
General Interest in Education
Provision in Wills
III. Brilliant Exceptions to Female Ignorance
Southern and Northern Women Contrasted
Unusual Studies for Women
Eliza Pinckney
Jane Turrell
Abigail Adams
IV. Practical Education
Abigail Adams' Opinion
Importance of Bookkeeping
Franklin's Advice
V. Educational Frills
Female Seminaries
Moravian schools
Dancing
Etiquette
Rules for Eating
Mechanical Aids Toward Uprightness
Complaints of Educational Poverty
Fancy Sewing
General Conclusions
CHAPTER III.
COLONIAL WOMAN AND THE HOME
I. Charm of the Colonial Home
Lack of Counter Attractions
Neither Saints nor Sinners in the Home
II. Domestic Love and Confidence
The Winthrop Love Letters
Edwards' Rhapsody
Further Examples
Descriptions of Home Life
Mrs. Washington and Mrs. Hamilton at Home
III. Domestic Toil and Strain
South vs. North
Lack of Conveniences
Silver and Linen
Colonial Cooking
Cooking Utensils
Specimen Meals
Home Manufactures
IV. Domestic Pride
Effect of Anti-British Sentiment
Spinning Circles
Dress-Making
V. Special Domestic Tasks
Supplying Necessities
Candles
Soap
Herbs
Neighborly Co-operation
"Social " Bees"
VI. The Size of the Family
Large Families an Asset
Astonishing Examples
Infant Death-Rate
Children as Workers
VII. Indian Attacks
Suffering of Captive Women
Mary Rowlandson's Account
Returning the Kidnapped
VIII. Parental Training
Co-operation Between Parents
Cotton Mather as Disciplinarian
Sewall's Methods
Eliza Pickney's Motherliness
New York Mothers
Abigail Adams to Her Son
IX. Tributes to Colonial Mothers
Judge Sewall's Noble Words
Other Specimens of Praise
John Lawson's Views
Woman's Strengthening Influence
X. Interest in the Home
Franklin's Interest
Evidence from Jefferson
Sewall's Affection
Washington's Relaxation
John Adams with the Children
Examples of Considerateness
Mention of Gifts
XI. Woman's Sphere
Opposition to Broader Activities
A Sad Example
Opinions of Colonial Leaders
Woman's Contentment with Her Sphere
Woman's Helpfulness
Distress of Mrs. Benedict Arnold
XII. Women in Business
Husbands' Confidence in Wives' Shrewdness
Evidence from Franklin
Abigail Adams as Manager
General Conclusions
CHAPTER IV
COLONIAL WOMAN AND DRESS
I. Dress Regulation by Law
Magistrates vs. Women
Fines
II. Contemporary Descriptions of dress
Effect of Wealth and Travel
Madame Knight's Descriptions
"Testimony by Sewall, Franklin, Abigail Adams"
III. Raillery and Scolding
Nathaniel Ward on Woman's Costume
Newspaper Comments
Advertisement of Hoop Petticoats
Evidence on the Size of Hoops
Hair-Dressing
Feminine Replies to Raillery
IV. Extravagance in Dress
Chastellux's Opinion
Evidence from Account Books
Children's Dress
Fashions in Philadelphia and New York
A Gentleman's Dress
Dolly Madison's Costume
The Meschiansza
A Ball Dress
Dolls as Models
Men's Jokes on Dress
Increase in Cost of Raiment
CHAPTER V
COLONIAL WOMAN AND SOCIAL LIFE
I. Southern Isolation and Hospitality
Progress through Wealth
Ca
Fast Days
Scant Attention to Thanksgiving and Christmas
How Bradford Stopped Christmas Observation
Sweall's Records of Christmas
A Century Later
VIII. Social Restrictions
Josselyn's Account of New England Restraints
Growing Laxity
Sara Knight's Description
Severity in 1780
Laws Against Lodging Relatives of the Opposite Sex
What Could not be Done in 1650
Husking Parties and Other Community Efforts
IX. Dutch Social Life
Its Pleasant Familiarity
Mrs. Grant's Descriptions of Early New York
Normal Pleasures
Love of Flowers and Children
Love of Eating
Mrs. Grant's Record
Disregard for Religion
Mating the Children
Picnicking
Peculiar Customs at Dutch Funerals
X. British Social Influences
Increase of Wealth
The Schuyler Home
Mingling of Gaiety and Economy
A Description in 1757
Foreign Astonishment at New York Display
Richness of Woman's Adornment
Card-Playing and Dancing
Gambling in Society
XI. Causes of Display and Frivolity
Washington's Punctiliousness
Mrs. Washington's Dislike of Stateliness
Disgust of the Democratic
Senator Maclay's Description of a Dinner by Washington
Permanent Benefit of Washington's Formality
Elizabeth Southgate's Record of New York Pastimes
XII. Society in Philadelphia
Social Welcome for the British
Early Instruction in Dancing
Formal Dancing Assemblies
XIII. The Beauty of Philadelphia Women
Abigail Adams' Description
The Accomplished Mrs. Bingham
Introduction of Social Fads
Contrasts with New York Belles
XIV. Social Functions
Lavish Use of Wealth at Philadelphia
Washington's Birthday
Martha Washington in Philadelphia
Domestic Ability of the Belles
Franklin and his Daughter
General Wayne's Statement about Philadelphia Gaiety
XV. Theatrical Performances
Their Growth in Popularity
Washington's Liking for Them
Mrs. Adams' Description
"First Performance in New York, Charleston, Williamsburg, Baltimore"
Invading the Stage
Throwing Missiles
XVI. Strange Customs in Louisiana
Passion for Pleasure
Influence of Creoles and Negroes
Habitat for Sailors and West Indian Ruffians
Reasons for Vice
Accounts by Berquin-Duvallon
Commonness of Concubinage
Alliott's Description
Reasons for Aversion to Marriage
Corruptness of Fathers and Sons
Drawing the Color Line
Race Prejudice at Balls
Fine Qualities of Louisiana White Women
Excess in Dress
Lack of Education
Berquin-Duvallon's Disgust
The Murder of Babes
General Conclusions
CHAPTER VI
COLONIAL WOMAN AND MARRIAGE
I. New England Weddings
Lack of Ceremony and merrymaking
Freedom of Choice for Women
The Parents' Permission
Evidences from Sewall
Penalty for the Toying with the Heart
The Dowry
II. Judge Sewall's Courtships
Independence of Colonial Women
Sewall and Madam Winthrop
His Friends' Urgings
His Marriage to Mrs. Tilley
Madam Winthrop's Hard-Hearted Manner
Sewall Looks Elsewhere for a Wife
Success Again
III. Liberty to Choose
Eliza Pinckney's Letter on the Matter
Betty Sewall's Rejection of Lovers
IV. The Banns and the Ceremony
Banns Required in Nearly all Colonies
Prejudice against the Service of Preachers
Sewall's Descriptions of Weddings
Sewall's Efforts to Prevent Preachers from Officiating
Refreshments at Weddings
Increase in Hilarity
V. Matrimonial Restrictions
Reasons for Them
Frequency of Bigamy
Monthly Fines
Marriage with Relatives
VI. Spinsters
Youthful Marriages
Bachelors and Spinsters Viewed with Suspicion
Fate of Old Maids
Description of a Boston Spinster.
VII. Separation and Divorce
Rarity of Them
Separation in Sewall's Family
Its Tragedy and Comedy
VIII. Marriage in Pennsylvania
Approach Toward Laxness
Ben Franklin's Marriage
Quaker Marriages
Strange Mating among Moravians
Dutch Marriages
IX. Marriage in the South
Church Services Required by Public Sentiment
Merrymaking
Buying Wives
Indented Servants
John Hammond's Account of Them
X. Romance in Marriage
Benedict Arnold's Proposal
"Hamilton's Opinion of His " Betty"
The Charming Romance of Agnes Surrage
XI. Feminine Independence
Treason at the Tongue's End
Independence of the Schuyler Girls.
XII. Matrimonial Advice
Jane Turell's Advice to Herself
XIII. Matrimonial Irregularities
Frequency of Them
Cause of Such Troubles
Winthrop's Record of Cases
Death as a Penalty
Law against Marriage of Relatives
No Discrimination in Punishment because of Sex
Sewall's Accounts of Executions
Use of the Scarlet Letter
Records by Howard
Custom of Bundling
Its Origin
Adultery between Indented White Women and Negroes
Punishment in Virginia
Instances of the Social Evil in New England
Less Shame among Colonial Men
XIV. Violent Speech and Action
Rebellious Speech against the Church
Amazonian Wives
Citations from Court Records
Punishments for Slander
CHAPTER VII
COLONIAL WOMAN AND THE INITIATIVE
I. Religious Initiative
Anne Hutchinson's Use of Brains
Bravery of Quaker Women
Perseverance of Mary Dyer
Martyrdom of Quakers
II. Commercial Initiative
Dabbling in State Affairs
Women as Merchants
Mrs. Franklin in Business
Pay for Women Teachers
Wome

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