George Frideric Handel
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Autor/en: Paul Henry Lang
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30. April 2012 - epub eBook - 784 Seiten
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"I was so impressed by what Dr. Lang has done in his new and very fresh approach to Handel, his life and works, that I can find only one word to express my feeling about it: Monumental!" — Eugene Ormandy.
Universally known and admired for his great oratorio Messiah, George Frideric Handel (1695-1759) ranks among the greatest composers of all time. Over a career of more than 50 years, most of it spent in England, the German-born master composed numerous other oratorios, operas, concertos, chamber music, orchestral suites, cantatas, and more. But until now, far less has been known about the man "possessed of a central calm" but whose "driving force was incalculable."
In this immensely thorough and readable biography — considered by many scholars the definitive work on Handel — renowned musicologist Paul Henry Lang penetrates the mystery of Handel's life to paint a vivid portrait of the great composer, while offering expert analysis of Handel's music — its sources, nature, forms, and influence.
Detailed, meticulously researched discussions cover Handel's birth and childhood in Halle; his early musical training and years at university; sojourns in Italy and meetings with Corelli, Scarlatti, and other major composers; Handel's adoption of England as his home; his business dealings in London; his somewhat puzzling relations with women; the onset of blindness in 1751 and the end of his artistic career; his death in 1759 and burial in Westminster Abbey; and many other aspects of his long and complex life.
In addition to the breadth of biographical material, Dr. Lang offers detailed discussions of Handel's music, of both its general characteristics and the specific features of such masterworks as the oratorios Messiah, Israel in Egypt, Solomon and Judas Maccabaeus; the operas Giulio Cesare and Rinaldo; the orchestral suites Royal Fireworks Music and Water Music;the pastoral Acis and Galatea; the odes Alexander's Feast and Ode for St. Cecilia's Day; and many other compositions. Perceptive, extremely thorough and obviously a labor of love, this masterly biography belongs in the library of every musician, music lover, and student of music and music history.
FOREWORD INTRODUCTION Halle -Handel's family -Earliest youth -Apprenticed to Zachow -Zachow as teacher -Handel's notebook and its contents -Fellow students -Visit to BerlinMeeting electoral couple and Italian composers -Appointed organist at Halle Cathedral-The university student -Compositions in Halle period -Decision to leave Halle --Hamburg -Music in Hamburg -Handel arrives in 1703 -Friendship with Mattheson -Handel joins opera orchestra -Keiser, his influence on HandelFirst attempt at opera, Almira (1705) -Handel-Keiser relationship -Altercation and reconciliation with Mattheson -Debacle of Nero -Handel resigns from Hamburg opera -Composes St. John Passion -State of oratorio-Passion in Germany -The Passion in Handel's life work -Handel leaves for Italy --Italy at the opening of the 18th century -Hegemony of opera and concertoGerman vs. Italian music -The process of assimilation -Handel in FlorenceRome -Papal court, academies, patrons -Prohibition of opera -The Arcadian Academy -Handel meets Corelli, Scarlatti, Pasquini -Begins his study of Italian music -The cantata -Mood and melody -The Florentine cantatas -Roman cantatas -Handel's patrons -Large cantata-serenatas -Church music -Spirit of Latin-Italian church music -The "bilingual" composers -Survival of Palestrina ideal-Maturing of Handel's choral writing IV (-1710) The Italian oratorio -Dramatic-theatrical elements -Role of the ScripturesCarissimi -The Old Testament in thc Italian oratorio -Italian works heard by Handel-La Resurrezione (1708) -Second visit to Florence -Rodrigo Naples -Opera and church music in Naples -Composes Ad, Galatea, e Polifemo and Agrippina -Venice -Agrippina produced December 1709Friendship with Domenico Scarlatti -Musical life in Venice -OperaConservatories -The late Venetian madrigal-Instrumental music -Italian musical language completely absorbed -Aspects of Handel's decision to abandon Italy -Religious and artistic reasons -Handel leaves for Hanover --Hanover -Elector Georg Ludwig -His wife, Caroline -Brief stay in HanoverConjectures concerning voyage to London -Visit to Halle and Dusseldorf -Arrival in London, fall of 1710 -State of Italian opera in London -Entrepreneurs on the scene -The Haymarket and Drury Lane Theatres -Handel makes contact with Haymarket Theatre -The intermediaries -Handel's first London opera, Rinaldo (February 1711) -John Walsh, the publisher-Opposition to Italian opera -Handel begins to move in social circles -Thomas Britton and his concerts -Handel's leave of absence ends -Second stay in Hanover -Back in London, fall of 1712 -Compositions in Hanover VI (1712-1720) Handel in Burlington House -II Pastor fida -Tesea (1713) -First financial crisis -Birthday Ode and Utrecht Te Deum (1713) -Handel assumes Purcell's legacy -The English tone appears in Handel's music -Queen Anne dies, Georg Ludwig proclaimed King, August 1714 -George I arrives in LondonTruant Hanoverian conductor's dilemma -Handel composes Silla for Burlington, Amadigi for Haymarket (1715) -Handel firmly in saddle -Begins his financial investments -Jacobite rebellion put down -The King leaves for Hanover followed by Handel-Travels to Halle and Ansbach -Meeting Christoph Schmidt -Disputed visit to Hamburg -The German Passion in the 18th century -Brackes Passion (1716?) -Handel returns to London, end of 1716-Opera season of 1717 -Cannons -The Duke of Chandos and his establishment -The "English" compositions -Handel's sister Dorothea dies (summer of 1718)Water Music, Concertos, Opus 3 -Formation of Royal Academy of MusicHandel goes to the Continent to recruit a troupe, June 1719 -Returns late in fall -Academy ready to open VII Baroque opera, its nature, dramaturgy, and esthetics -Comparison of Baroque with modern opera -Obstacles to our understanding -The aria -Role of Alessandro Scarlatti -Italian melody, Handelian melody -General form of Handel's opera -The castrato 174 Royal Academy opens first season -Radamisto (1720) -Giovanni Bononcini joins staff -Ensuing rivalry -Second season -Third season -Flaridante (1721) -Cuzzoni added to company -Fourth season -OUone, Flavia (1723) -Fifth season -Giulio Cesare (1724) -Bononcini vanquished -Sixth season Tamerlano, Rodelinda (1724) -Handel buys a house -Academy in financial difficulties -Bordoni engaged -Seventh season -Scipione, Alessandro (1726)Eighth season -Admeto (1727) -Profitable year -Handel becomes a British subject, February 20, 1727 -George I dies, George II proclaimed King, January 1727-Ninth season-Riccardo 1(1727), Siroe (1728) -Collapse of AcademyReasons for failure of Italian opera -"English opera" and "semi-opera" -The language barrier -The Beggar's Opera -Its success seals fate of Academy IX Beginnings of "English" Handel-Standards of Augustan Age -Class society and religion -Capitalism -The bourgeoisie -Literature -The Burlington circle -Its influence on Handel-About church music -German music of the Baroque -The cantor's art -The Church of England -Its secular spirit in Handel's time -Nonconformists and Puritans -Handel's conception of Anglican church music -Commemorative-ceremonial-patriotic compositions -Ode and anthemChandos Anthems -Other anthems -Te Deums -Handel's English church music compared to Continental-His indebtedness to English composers Handel and Heidegger take over defunct Academy -Trip to Italy to recruit singers -Finds Italian opera changed -Aged mother's illness hastens departureVisit to Halle -Return to London -Second Academy opens, end of 1729Lotario (1729), Partenope (1730) -Poor season -New singers improve second season -Walsh as Handel's principal publisher -Poro (1731) -Season closes successfully-Handel's mother dies-Ezio, Sosarme (1732), Orlando (1733)Interlude from opera: Deborah (1733) -Renewed operatic rivalry -Opera of the Nobility -Fourth season ends with Handel's Singers deserting -Invitation to Oxford -Tremendous success with English compositions -Athalia (1733), first full-fledged oratorio -Handel ignores success, resumes battle for operaFormidable competition led by POl"pOra -The two Ariannas (1734) -Parnasso in Festa -Heidegger dissolves partnership, Handel joins Covent GardenAriodante, Alcina (1735) -Lenten season of English works -Opposition grows stronger, Handel's health begins to fail-Handel turns to English worksAlexander's Feast (1736) -Despite success, Handel returns to opera -Atalanta ( 1736) -Balance turns in his favor, Porpora retreats -Arminio, Giustino, Berenice (1737) -Both opera companies bankrupt -Handel collapses in mind and health -Leaves for Aix XI Cannons -Masque and pastoral-Handel's pantheism -Culture and nature as concentric forces -Pictorialism in music -Acis and Galatea -Use of the chorus -Mozart's edition -Modern fallacies in performance -EstherLibretto and music poorly organized -Much borrowed material-Historical importance -Bernard Gates performs Esther (1732) -Subsequent piratical production arouses Handel-First appearance of religious issue -Bishop of London and his edict -Second unauthorized production: Acis -Handel destroys competition -Deborah -New role of chorus -Racine and the return of Greek drama -Athalia successful, but Handel returns to opera -Alexander's Feast XII (1737-1741) Aachen -Remarkable recovery -Handel returns to London -Renews partnership with Heidegger -Queen Caroline dies -Funeral Anthem (1737) -Faramondo (1738) -Roubiliac's statue -Handel's popularity -Serse (1738) -Opera disappears in London for two years -Handel begins Saul-Charles JennensSaul, Israel in Egypt (1739) -Handel leases Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre-Ode for St. Cecilia's Day (1739), L'Allegro, il Penseroso, ed il Moderato (1740)Influence of Purcell-Handel suddenly returns to opera -Imeneo (1740), Deidamia (1741) -Final opera season ends in spring of 1741 -Inception of "conversion" theory with Hawkins -The "oratorio way" XIII (1741-1742) Messiah (1741) -Circumstances surrounding composition of Messiah-Arguments supporting special purpose -The legends -Dublin at the time of Handel's visit -Local musical scene -Charitable societies -Handel's trip to Dublin -First public concerts -Subscription sold out -Second series of concerts -Messiah first performed, April 13, 1742 -The libretto -The music -Critical appreciation of Messiah in modern literature -Handel returns to London XIV The oratorio since the Romantic era -Religious-moral-didactic conceptionsEnglish views of the Old Testament -Comparison of English and German oratorio -The historical-scriptural drama -Handel and the Old TestamentClassifications of the Handelian oratorio -Its constituent strains -Classical antiqUity -The Augustan Age and classicism -Classical dramatic tradition in England -Greek drama as refiected in Handel's oratorio -Attic drama and English Bible -Racine reintroduces chorus -The Handelian oratorio and the Old Testament -English conceptions of the role of the Old Testament in ChristianityOratorio vis-a-vis stage and church -Handelian oratorio as music drama XV (1742-1744) Handel returns from Dublin -Milton and his Samson Agonistes -Hamilton's libretto for Samson -The music -Handel's changed dramaturgical ideasTenor displaces castrato -Samson (1743) a success -First Messiah in LondonDettingen Te Deum (1743) -Radical change of style: Semele (1744)Con greve' s libretto arranged -The music -Renewed opera war -Ruthlessness of Middlesex party -Moral opposition from public and clergy to Semele -Joseph and his Brethren (1744) -Middlesex company collapses, Handel leases Haymarket Theatre -Twenty-four subscription concerts announced Hercules (1745) -Broughton's libretto-The music-Failure leads to cancellation of concert series -Public rallies and Handel resumes performancesBelshazzar (1745) -Jennens's libretto -The music -Failure again forces suspension of concerts -Handel vacates Haymarket Theatre -Suffers another physical collapse XVII (1745-1748) Handel recovers but is a changed man -Shuns public and does not composeStuart rebellion rouses dormant creative instinct -The "victory" oratoriosOccasional Oratorio (1746) -Battle of Culloden commemorated in Judas Maccabaeus (April 1746) -Morell's libretto -The music -Instant successHandel abandons subscription system -Mixed opinions about Judas MaccabaeusHandel and Morell continue with successful recipe : Alexander Balus (1748)The music-Joshua (1748) -End of "occasional" oratorio phase-Handel's life and position changed -His status unassailable -Gluck visits London-New singers trained by Handel -His calm and serene life XVIII (1748-1749) Solomon (1749)-Librettist unknown-The music-Susanna (1749)Anonymous librettist -The music -Handel acquiesces in public's indolenceProved successes carry the oratorio seasons -Political events claim his attention -Royal Fireworks Music (1749) -Made Governor of Foundling HospitalThe admired master XIX (1749-1750) New tone in last oratorios -Theodora (1750) has non-biblical Christian subject Comparison of two "Christian" oratorios: Theodora and Messiah -Morell's libretto -The music -Theodora Handel's favorite oratorio -Final castrato role Theodora complete failure-Entr'acte: Smollett's Alceste (1749), reworked as The Choice of Hercules -The music -Handel purchases Rembrandt picture Presents organ to Foundling Hospital-Conducts Messiah to overflowing houses Yearly performance of Messiah becomes tradition -Handel makes his will, June 1750 -Last visit to Germany Last oratorio, Jephtha -Handel takes leave of his artistic career -New serenity The religious element in Jephtha-Prototypes-Morell's libretto-MoreU's miscalculations righted by Handel-The music -Borrowings from Habermann Onslaught of blindness -Oratorio seasons held despite Handel's infirmity -1752 season comes to end with death of Prince of Wales -Jephtha presented in 1752 XXI (1752-1759) Handel undergoes unsuccessful eye surgery -No failure of creative imaginationAdditions to revised oratorios dictated -First codicil to will, August 1756 -The Triumph of Time and Truth (1756), last "new" work-Morell's libretto-The music -Second and third codicils -Handel supposedly operated on by Taylor, summer of 1758 -Last oratorio season ends, April 6, 1759 -Final codicilHandel dies on April 14, 1759, and is buried in Westminster Abbey XXII Handel the man, his friends, his surroundings -Handel the conductor, the entrepreneur, the businessman -Relationship with English musicians -Handel and women; the heroines in his works -Handel and nature, his genre scenesSpirit of rural England -Handel's English -Handel's religion -Impresario VS. creative artist -Deism -Handel's mutilation of his own scoresBorrowings -The moral issue -"Invention" and "imagination" in the 18th century -Handel's transplanting technique XXIII Handel's style -The operas -Problem of opera in England -Handel and the Italian tradition -Changed style in last operas -Ensemble and chorusRecitative, aria, arioso, scena -His opera librettists -Absence of buffa veinEnglish oratorio a personal creation -The oratorio librettists -Survival of operatic elements in oratorio -Handel's difficulties with post-denouement matters -The happy ending -Handel's role in the operatic reform ascribed to GluckInhibitions faced by modern musicians approaching Handelian style XXIV Handel's melody, harmony, rhythm, and metre -The improvisatory elementCounterpoint -The fugue -Choral counterpoint -Other stylistic featuresThe recitative -Difficult change from Italian to English recitative -The aria -The da capo principle -The concerted aria -Stylized aria types -Difference between oratorio and opera arias -The ensemble -Illustrative symbolismHermeneutics and Affektenlehre -Arguments for and against musical hermeneutics -Handel's use of musical symbols -Handel and French music XXV Handel's instrumental music -Strong Italian influence -Motivic unity -Euphony as main condition -German sources -French and English elements -Chamber music -Orchestral works -"Oboe" concertos, Opus 3 -Mixture of old and new -Twelve Grand Concertos, Opus 6 -Other concertos and suites -Organ concertos -Harpsichord works XXVI Handel's orchestra -The concerto grosso principle -The basso continuoBaroque orchestral balance -HarpSichord and organ -Handel's chorus -Quality of Handel's performances -Modern performance practices -Tempo and dYnanJics -Continuity -Ornamentation -The restored scores -The problem of length -"Additional accompaniment" and arrangements -The castrato partsBowdlerized texts XXVII Handelian biography -Chrysander and Serauky -The English Handelians: Rockstro, Streatfeild, Flower -Winton Dean -Bach and Handel, the inevitable comparison -Handel and English music -Who "crushed" music in England?Handel and Purcell-Failure to establish English opera -Handel's contemporaries in England EPILOGUE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE INDEX OF HANDEL'S WORKS DISCUSSED IN THIS BOOK GENERAL INDEX
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