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Titel: Conflicts of Empires: Spain, the Low Countries and the Struggle for World Supremacy, 1585-1713
Autor/en: Jonathan I. Israel
Autor/en: Jonathan I. Israel
1. Juli 1997 - gebunden - 504 Seiten
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The period between the late sixteenth and the early eighteenth centuries was one of tremendous, and ultimately decisive, shifts in the balance of political, military and economic power in both Europe and the wider world. Spain's overwhelming dominance in the 1580s seemed unassailable, yet by the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 its greatness had been eclipsed, leaving supremacy to Britain, France and, in the commercial sphere, the Dutch. In these essays (five of which are previously unpublished) Jonathan Israel argues that Spain's efforts to maintain her hegemony continued to be centred on the Low Countries. One should not readily assume that Spain's order of priorities was misconceived: at times she appeared to be close to succeeding. Both France and Britain were deeply riven by religious, political and social divisions during a large part of the seventeenth century. While it is true that after Spain's final defeat, at the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), French preponderance within, and British supremacy outside, Europe seemed increasingly probable, the overthrow of James II in 1688 might well have been the prelude to political chaos and civil war in Britain. While long-term economic and social trends played a large part in shaping the outcome of events, it is also true that the impact of personalities and short-term contingencies could often be decisive.
The court of Albert and Isabella, 1598-1621; garrisons and empire; Spain's strongholds in north-west Germany, 1589-1659; a Spanish project to defeat the Dutch without fighting; the Rhine-Maas Canal, 1624-9; Olivares, the cardinal-infante and Spain's strategy in the Low Countries; the road to Rocroi, 1635-43; art and diplomacy - Gerard Ter Borch and the Munster Peace negotiations, 1646-8; Spain and Europe from the Peace of Munster, (1648) to the Peace of the Pyrenees, 1648-54; Dutch Sephardi jewry, millenarian politics, and the struggle for Brazil, 1640-54; the diplomatic career of Jeronimo Nunes da Costa - an episode in Dutch-Portuguese relations of the seventeenth century; Lopo Ramirez (David Curiel) and the attempt to establish a Sephardi community in Antwerp, 1653-54; the Jews of Spanish Oran and their expulsion in 1669; toleration in seventeenth-century Dutch and English thought; William III and toleration; England's mercantilist response to Dutch world trade primacy, 1647-74; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange and the English revolution of 1688; England, the Dutch and the struggle for mastery of world trade in the age of the glorious revolution; Gregorio Leti, 1631-1701 and the Dutch Sephardi elite at the close of the seventeenth century; the Dutch republic and the jews during the conflict over the Spanish succession, 1699-1715.
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