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Titel: The Christian Philosophy of William Temple
Autor/en: S. T. Padgett
Autor/en: S. T. Padgett
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1974.
30. November 1974 - kartoniert - 324 Seiten
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A. PURPOSE AND PLAN William Temple was trained as a philosopher and lectured on phi losophy at Oxford (1904), but his concern for labor, education, journalism, and the Church of England led him away from philosophy as a profession. Enthroned in 1942 as Archbishop of Canterbury, Temple persisted in applying his Christian position to the solution of the problems of the day. He will be remembered for his contributions in many areas of life and thought: his work in the ecumenical movement, and his writings in theology and social ethics attest to the variety and depth of his concern, but of special significance is his contribution toward the construction of a distinctly Christian philosophy relevant to the twentieth century. Although Temple did not work out a systematic formulation of his Christian philosophy, the bases for a Christian philosophy are never theless evident in his position. It is the purpose of the present work to enter sympathetically and critically into the major facets of Temple's position and to weave together, as far as is legitimate, the separate strands of his thought into a meaningful, even if not a completely unified, Christian philosophy. The intent is not simply to present Temple's conclusions on a variety of philosophical and theological issues; rather, Temple's position is developed systematically, and the arguments for the conclusions at which he arrived are carefully ex pounded.
- A. Purpose and Plan.
- B. The Unity of Temple's Christian Philosophy.
- C. The Major Influences on Temple's Life and Thought.- I The Construction of a Christian Philosophy.
- 2. The Philosophic Enterprise.
- A. The Philosophic Approach.
- B. The Philosophic Method.
- 1. Deductive and inductive methods.
- 2. The dialectical method.
- 3. Meaning and task of philosophy.
- 3. The Knowledge Venture.
- A. Origin and Impetus.
- 1. Thought as the extension of organic process.
- 2. Desire as the impetus of thought.
- 3. Practical and speculative interests.
- 4. The knowledge venture itself justified.
- B. The Cartesian Error.
- 1. The dialectical movement of thought.
- 2. The ultimacy of the subject-object relationship.
- 3. The failure of Hume and Kant.
- 4. Merits of antithesis and thesis.
- 4. The Understanding of Reality.
- A. Knowledge as the Apprehension of Reality.
- 1. Rudimentary consciousness as organic reaction to environment.
- 2. The real world as given in experience.
- 3. Knowledge as built up gradually.
- B. Knowledge, Truth, and Reality.
- 1. Knowledge as distinguished from truth.
- 2. A twofold criterion of truth.
- 3. The inability of intellect to comprehend reality.
- 4. Beyond intellect in quest of an explanatory concept.
- 5. The Relevance of Christian Philosophy.
- A. The Relation of Philosophy and Religion.
- 1. Tensions between philosophy and religion.
- 2. Values and disvalues of the tensions.
- 3. Scientific philosophy versus theological philosophy.
- B. A Christian Philosophy.
- 1. The need of philosophy for religion.
- 2. The Christian faith as supplying the need.
- 3. The justification of Christian Philosophy.
- C. Summary and Conclusions.
- 1. The theoretical inadequacy of scientific philosophy.
- 2. The practical adequacy of Christian philosophy.- II A Christian Philosophy of Personality: Human and Divine.
- 6. Process and Personality.
- A. Process, Mind, and Value.
- 1. The historical priority of matter.
- 2. The axiological priority of mind.
- 3. The supremacy of spirit.
- B. The Quest for an Explanatory Principle.
- C. Personality as a Metaphysical Principle of Explanation.
- 1. Purposive will as the only explanatory principle.
- 2. A value-centered metaphysics.
- 7. Human Personality.
- A. The Union of Matter and Mind in Man.
- 1. Man as a psycho-physical organism.
- 2. Man as a personal being.
- B. Difference between Personal and Sub-Personal.
- 1. A Thing.
- 2. A Brute.
- 3. A Person.
- C. Dimensions of Human Personality.
- 1. Individuality and self-determination.
- 2. Society and the need for fellowship.
- 3. Fulfillment and the need for service.
- D. The Ideal of Personality.
- 1. Chief characteristics of human personality: Purpose, fellowship and love.
- 2. Divine Personality as the completion of human aspiration.
- 8. Divine Personality.
- A. God's Relation to the World.
- 1. God as creator.
- 2. God as an immanent principle of variability.
- 3. God as the transcendent self-identical person.
- 4. God's revelation of Himself.
- B. Divine Personality: A Triune God.
- 1. Problems posed by the Ideal Personality.
- 2. The trinity as the simultaneous activity of God.
- 9. Justification for Theism.
- A. The Convergence of Independent Lines of Argument.
- B. The Philosophical Evidence for Theism.
- 1. The demand of theoretical and practical reason for a principle of unity.
- 2. The need for God to complete man's search for unity through science, art, morality, and religion.
- 3. Truth, beauty, and moral goodness as providing intimations of a personal God.
- 4. A Supreme Mind as the necessary ground for the occurrence of mind in the World-Process.
- C. The Evidence of Religious Experience.
- 1. The Meaning of religious experience.
- 2. The insufficiency of religious experience.
- 10. From Theism to a Metaphysics of the Incarnation.
- A. The Good of Evil.
- B. A Christocentric Metaphysics.
- C. Summary and conclusions.
- 1. Personality as the key to reality.
- 2. The Human Person.
- 3. The Divine Person.
- 4. Evidence for a Personal God.
- 5. The Person of Christ.- III A Christian Philosophy of Personal and Social Morality.
- 11. Personal Ethics.
- A. A Theory of Value.
- B. Man as a Moral Being.
- 1. The Moral Level.
- 2. Moral obligation as unique but derivative.
- C. Fundamental Moral Principles.
- 1. The obligation to be conscientious.
- 2. The optimific principle.
- 3. Lack of certainty in ethics.
- D. Practical Principles of Guidance.
- 1. Social significance of origin of obligation.
- 2. Membership in society as a clue to right action.
- 3. Love of neighbor as the absolute moral law.
- 4. The failure of formal solutions.
- 12. The Need of Ethics for Religion.
- A. Conversion as the Solution to Practical Ethics.
- 1. Man's moral situation as a self-centered being.
- 2. The self's bondage to itself.
- 3. Quest for values as a means of partial escape from self.
- 4. God as the center of the self.
- 5. Content distinguished from motive of morality.
- B. Vocation as the Solution to Theoretical Ethics.
- 1. Right and good as identical.
- 2. Man's inner logic as guide.
- 13. Christian Social Thought.
- A. Basic Social Principles.
- 1. The sacredness of personality.
- 2. The principle of fellowship.
- 3. The duty of service.
- B. The Political Order.
- 1. Society as a natural product.
- 2. The state as the necessary organ of society.
- 3. The international community.
- C. The Economic Order.
- 1. The necessity for economic freedom.
- 2. Economic productivity as a means to cultural productivity.
- D. Summary and Conclusions.
- 1. Actual value as a relation between mind and object.
- 2. Ethics as a life of devotion to God.
- 3. Society as the means for spiritual development.- IV A Christian Philosophy of History.
- 14. The Historical Process.
- A. Personality, Value, and Temporal Sequence.
- B. The Interpretation of History.
- 1. The historical method.
- 2. The historian's task.
- C. The Forces Operating in Human History.
- 1. Personal and universal fellowship.
- 2. Self-interest.
- D. Process and Result.
- 15. History and Eternity.
- A. Relation of Time to Eternity.
- 1. Significance of the temporal for the eternal.
- 2. Effect of the temporal on the eternal.
- B. Relation of Eternity to Time.
- 1. Significance of eternity for the temporal process.
- 2. Effect of the eternal on the temporal.
- C. Personality and Eternal Life.
- 1. The imperative of immortality.
- 2. Faith in God as the basis for immortality.
- 3. Eternal life as fellowship with God.
- 4. Capacity of man for eternal life.
- D. Summary and Conclusions.
- 1. The incompleteness of history.
- 2. The Kingdom of God beyond history.
- 3. The conditions for personal immortality.- V Evaluation and Reconstruction of Temple's Christian Philosophy.
- 16. Philosophy and the Christian Faith.
- A. The Metaphysical Quest for Understanding.
- B. Believing and Doubting.
- C. The Philosophic Task of a Christian.
- 17. Human Personality.
- A. The Status of Personality in the World-Process.
- B. The Unique Unity of the Human Person.
- C. The Person and His Personality.
- 18. The Category of the Personal and the Problem of God.
- A. Personality as a Metaphysical Principle of Explanation.
- 1. Purpose as a guiding image for metaphysical speculation.
- 2. An experiential-empirical approach to the problem of God.
- B. The Category of the Personal as a Basic Philosophical Concept.
- 2. Personality as the primary concept in Temple's philosophy.
- 2. Justification of personal categories as basic philosophical principles.
- 19. The Person in Relation to Society.
- A. Value-possibilities and Value-experience.
- B. Individual Integrity and Moral Worth.
- C. The Obligation to Will the Best Possible Consequences.
- D. Toward a Christian Civilization.
- 20. God and the Meaning of History.
- A. The Historicity of God.
- B. The Meaning of History Within History.
- C. A Concluding Comment.
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