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Titel: Historia del peronismo III (1956-1983)-la violencia
Autor/en: Hugo Gambini
Autor/en: Hugo Gambini
1. Dezember 2008 - kartoniert - 484 Seiten
This third volume of the History of Peronism, by Hugo Gambini, completes the history of one of the most popular and long lasting Latin American political movements and unravels the enigma about general Peron and his followers ideological stance. After the 1955 coup the CGT, Confederacion General del Trabajo de Argentina (Argentine Labor Confederation), strived to keep its power, obtained by being the pillar of the "organized society", as conceived in 1946 by Peron under the intellectual influx of Mussolini. At this point the struggle was limited: those who attempted a "peronism without Peron", and the "verticalists" who felt safer by blindly obeying the leader, rather than acting as interpreters of an ideology that even they found elusive. However, entering the '60s, a complicated, though fertile, environment surrounded the movement as it attempted the destabilization of the also difficult to define Argentine military governments. The cold war deployed in Latin America created a crisis in the peronism linearity, as it confronted the opportunity of taking advantage of the energy raised by the Castro-Che Guevara tandem among a generation that knew the peronism-antiperonism antagonism only through their parents' remembrances. However this move entailed the peril of blurring its own rightwing mass movement essence, and jumping into a melting pot with a leftist group, closely related to communism, which Peron always had considered the major enemy in his struggle for society organization and control. «History of Peronism - III (1956-1983) The violence» deals with this period, and follows general Peron's path showing how this Latin American military man, with an early XX Century right wing nationalistic upbringing, achieved -in a most unlikely syncretism- to have the Argentine right wing national fascism and Castro-communism joining efforts after the goal, finally reached, of bringing him back into power after 17 years of absence. Peron's quick physical decay, and his death in 1974, uncovered the unbalance between the different factions of his followers -and, by the way, also among those who had the duty to repress legally his successors' factions violent attempts to seize power- unleashing one of the most violent periods in a country that, until then, had considered itself as an exemplary republic of peace and tolerance. The casualty count raised exponentially: after the 1955 coup general Aramburu had ordered 31 executions, comprising military and civilians. On returning to power General Peron ordered the shooting of 64 young leftists. His wife raised the count to 900, and the military to 9,000. The guerrillas acknowledged the killing of 745 people, both military and civilians.
Hugo Gambini (1934-2019) was born in Buenos Aires in 1934. He has gone through all the veins of journalism, from the daily chronicle and the weekly note to the great report and opinion column. He was a reporter, chronicler and editor of newspapers, news agencies, newspapers, magazines, radio stations and television channels. In graphic journalism he went through La Vanguardia, El Avisador Mercantil, Crítica, Noticias Gráficas, El Economista, Diario Popular, Chronicle, See and Read, Leoplán, Panorama, Siete Días, Primera Plana and La Opinion. Since 1973 he is president of Editorial Redacción SA.
He published El Che Guevara, which was a best-seller in 1968 and banned in 1969; reissued with the same success in 1973 and again banned in 1975; reissued in 1996 and this time chosen by booksellers from all over the country as the best biography of the year, to award him the Planeta Prize in that genre.
In 1999 his History of Peronism appeared. The total power (1943-1951) and in June 2001 the second volume, entitled History of Peronism. The obsequence (1952-1955).
He also published October 17, 1945 (1969); The First Presidency of Perón (1971); Peronism and the Church (1971). He directed the documentary Chronicle of the Falklands, in three volumes (1982/83).
He has collaborated with notes signed in the newspapers La Nación and Clarín. In 1983 he was appointed by President Raúl Alfonsín to head Telam, the Argentine news agency.
He was distinguished with the Order of the Bull Lisandro de la Torre (1972); the Mariano R. Castex Journalism Award (1977) and the Esquiú Silver Cross (1985).
On radio and television it was banned by the military regimes and could only work in those media under democratic governments. He was a political columnist on El Mundo, Continental and Splendid radio stations. On television, he worked on all channels, until successfully conducting his own program Interpellation and becoming one of the most outspoken journalists in the media. Subsequently, he created and directed two television series: The Good and the Bad, of current political interviews, and the program Apenas Ayer, evocative of great historical themes.
He acted aseditor-in-chief of the bi-monthly magazine Redacción Económica y de Redacción Automotriz, as well as host of the journalistic program Calentito el café, which is broadcast by Radio de la Ciudad (AM 1110), on Saturdays and Sundays at 8 a.m. He was also a columnist for the morning program Breakfast, which is broadcast daily throughout the country on Channel 7 of Buenos Aires.
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